Jordan – Timeline
Jordan – Timeline

Jordan – Timeline

Paleolithic Age (1.5 million years ago):

  • Evidence of human activity in Jordan.

Neolithic Age (12000 BCE – 3500 BCE):

  • City of Jericho founded in the region of Jordan around 9000 BCE.
  • Community of Ain Ghazal flourishes in Jordan from about 7000 BCE to 5000 BCE.

Bronze Age (3600 BCE – 1200 BCE):

  • Emergence of fortified towns and urban centers in Jordan.

Ancient Empires:

  • Region of Jordan part of the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334 BCE – c. 2100 BCE).
  • Arrival of the Hyksos in Jordan around 2000 BCE.
  • Hyksos driven from Jordan by the Egyptians in 1570 BCE.
  • Region of Jordan flourishes under the reign of Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III (1458 BCE – 1425 BCE).

Iron Age (1200 BCE – 332 BCE):

  • Kingdoms of Ammon, Edom, and Moab flourish during this period.

Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires:

  • Area conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire around c. 740-720 BCE.
  • After the collapse of the Assyrians, area incorporated into the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar the Great (605-539 BCE).
  • Becomes part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (539-330 BCE).

Greek Influence

  • Greeks under Alexander the Great conquer the area in 330 BCE.
  • Alexander dies in 323 BCE, leading to disputes between the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Seleucids in Syria.

Nabataean Kingdom:

  • Flourishes from the 3rd century BCE to 100 AD, controlling trade routes from Petra.

Roman Rule

  • Roman general Pompey the Great annexes the region in 63 BCE, which becomes a Roman province.
  • Roman Emperor Hadrian visits Jerash in Jordan in 129-130 CE, commemorated by a triumphal arch.

Islamic Conquest and Later Empires:

  • Arab conquest in 636.
  • Umayyad dynasty establishes Damascus as the capital around c. 650.
  • Abbasids overthrow the Umayyads in 750.
  • Jordan ruled by the Fatimid Caliphate from 969 to 1070.
  • Becomes part of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1115 to 1187.
  • Defeat of the Crusaders by Salah ad-Din in 1187.
  • Mongol invasion in 1260, defeated by Mamluk forces.
  • Ottomans conquer the region in 1516.

Modern Period

  • World War One from 1914 to 1918.
  • Great Arab Revolt in 1916.
  • Emirate of Transjordan established in 1921.
  • Jordan recognized as an independent sovereign kingdom by the United Nations in 1946.
  • Jordan annexes the West Bank in 1950.
  • Jordan expels Palestinian Liberation Organisation armed camps in 1970-71.
  • Peace treaty with Israel signed in 1994.
  • King Hussein dies in 1999, succeeded by Crown Prince Abdullah.

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